Redating the reign of hatshepsut

Velikovsky’s work sparked a wave of new research in ancient history.

And while the bulk of Velikovsky’s conclusions have not been borne out by this research, his main thesis has: the apparent conflict between ancient records and the Bible is due to a misdating of those ancient records, and that when these records are dated correctly, all such “conflicts” disappear.

While it is interesting that this date actually saw the death of an Egyptian ruler – and there have been those who tried to identify Queen Hatshepsut as the Pharaoh of the Exodus – the power and prosperity of Egypt at this time is hard to square with the biblical account of the Exodus.

Some historians have been attracted by the name of the store-city Raamses built by the Israelites before the Exodus.

It is an account of an Egypt suddenly bereft of leadership. Foreign invaders are everywhere, with no one to hold them in check. The river being blood indicates a breakdown of law and order and a proliferation of violent crime.

The natural order of things has come to a crashing standstill. The lack of light stands for the lack of enlightened leadership.

Malul, we are told, reigned from the age of six to the age of 100. – sounds fantastic, and many people would hesitate to take this Midrash literally.

As it happens, though, Egyptian records mention a Pharaoh who reigned for 94 years, and not only 94 years, but from the age of six to the age of 100!

This Pharaoh was known in inscriptions as Pepi (or Phiops) II.

Like Malul, his successor had a short reign of three or four years, after which Egypt fell apart. (9:6) Gold and lapus lazuli, silver and malachite, camelian and bronze . Had Ipuwer been a member of Pharaoh’s court, and witnessed the full drama of Moses and Aaron confronting his king, he might have written in such a way as to make the dating of the Exodus clear to even the most skeptical.

Pepi II’s dynasty was called the 6th Dynasty, and was the last dynasty of the Old Kingdom. As it is, we have an account of how the events of the Exodus affected Egypt as a whole.

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Slaves have disappeared and taken all the wealth of Egypt with them. Of course, that’s not what it says, but it is more palatable than the alternative, which is that the phenomena described by Ipuwer were literally true.

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